3 Reasons why you are never “too OLD”
October 5, 2017

3 Reasons why you are never “too OLD”

If you are a competition lover like I am, this has been an amazing summer to observe the absolute best in the master’s section of the Crossfit Games and I have to say, though, my favorite is watching the performances of the “older” athletes. There were quite a few athletes that were past the ages that we may normally associate with being in one’s “physical prime.” Many athletes in their mid-30’s on say that they are in the best shape of their lives right now. Who isn’t inspired by 41-year-old gymnasts and runners or a 65-year old who can climb a rope better than most grade-schoolers?

So what is the deal with this new longevity we are seeing among athletes?

Here’s what you need to know:

#1. The human body is constantly evolving

We do not yet know how far we can push ourselves. One of the most famous instances is the case of the 4-minute-mile. Nobody thought it could happen – however, once that “barrier” was broken, it happens (for very fit people, anyway) on a regular basis. The same thing is happening now with older adults. With improved training and techniques, as well as advances in equipment, some are even surpassing their college performances.

#2. Athletes get smarter and wiser with age plus, many have full-time jobs

This means that the volume of training is often reduced when compared to younger competitors. Therefore, older athletes tend to train smarter – not harder, and have (and give themselves) greater recovery time. An unfortunate truth for many is that recovery from injuries can take longer in an older adult, therefore, they are more careful with training techniques.

#3. The social support for competitive master’s athletes is continually growing

More people are continuing to compete in sports for longer. It is more acceptable right now for people of any age to take up a sport that they have previously discontinued or start a new sport. The Baby Boomers are one of the largest groups of those beginning new sports population, once they have retired from a full-time job or when the children have moved out of the house – they have the disposable income as well as more time to spend on this type of endeavor.

“In fairly short time, I noticed…gains”

And what does all of this mean for you?

If you are not yet a Master’s-Aged competitor, you can still expect plenty of support for your sports plans, throughout your lifetime. There are growing opportunities to compete, from local to worldwide level, and coaching is evolving with the changing demographic.

If you ARE a person wanting to take up a new sport or activity, the opportunities are endless. And the good news is, you need not to have necessarily been an athlete in your previous life to become one now. I have had the opportunity to work with people who are seasoned athletes as well as neophytes, who can compete at the same levels.

September 14, 2017

Is CrossFit Expensive?




You walk into your local globo gym and perhaps the front desk person greets you with a simple “hello,” never knowing what your actual name is. Then you scan your card and you are officially on your own. You throw on your brand-new headphones, crank up the music and hope people will leave you alone while you try getting your workout in.


You open the door and the coach yells your name, “Hey Jim! So great to see you! How did that big business meeting go for you today?” You are amazed that he remembered about that meeting you mentioned being stressed about last week. You go into detail about the meeting and thank him for showing interest. Two seconds later another member greets you, “Jim we missed you on Tuesday! You missed a killer workout that had all of your favorite movements in it. We should do it some time together. I would love to see how fast you could do it in!”  After only 5 short minutes minutes, you feel loved and valued not just as a member of a gym, but as a part of a community of friends!



You found a new Men’s Health or Women’s Health workout routine online from your favorite actor/actress that promises you will “GET SHREDDED IN 30 DAYS!” Now its day 15 and you see zero changes. All of your clothes fit the same. You even take a selfie picture in the gym locker room… NOTHING! So you go back to your old ways, gravitating to the machines you know and are comfortable with. The only issue is that you have reached your peak on the results you’re going to see from that machine since you do it every other day and now you are stuck in a plateau from never mixing up your workout routine.


Every hour is perfectly planned out for you from the warmup to the gymnastics skill work to the strength workout and lastly, to the conditioning. There’s even an app to see what you’re doing that day before you come in. All you have to do is SHOW UP! Every day is different from the day before and the workouts are going to give you RESULTS! WHY? Because they are always changing and they incorporate every aspect of fitness. Did I mention you have a certified COACH that guides you through every part of the workout?  It’s almost like having a personal trainer for 5-20 people at one time but without the cost of a personal trainer!

During the one hour class, you will see movements ranging from: gymnastics, powerlifting, body weight movements, olympic lifting, running, rowing, biking, and core work. There is never an area of fitness or the body that doesn’t get attention during your one hour class. Results are inevitable and all that is required is hard work and time.



You got to the gym at 6:00 PM…the one time of day you always dread going. You planned to get that “PUMP” today with that good ‘ole CHEST and TRICEP workout. Girls, if you are reading this replace that with your favorite glute workout. Let’s be honest…we haven’t hit legs in three weeks, but summer is coming and you’ll be in a swimsuit soon. The only issue is that EVERY other guy in the gym is trying to do the same workout routine…bench, cable machine, incline bench, chest pec fly, and then there is always that one guy that is doing some new move that you’ll probably see on YouTube later for some comedic relief. It has been almost an hour and you haven’t gotten anything done because you feel too awkward asking to mix in with them. Your 1 hour workout just became 2 hours and you only did half of what you had planned.


Coach calls over the 5:30 class today. Wow! 20 people showed up today the class is going to be AWESOME! You can tell there is so much energy in the room. You notice there are three or four other members that are very comparable in your skill level that are really going to push you to do your best today. You go over the announcements which include all of the fun stuff coming up at the gym like that group outing you have been looking forward to at the end of the month!

Time for the warmup. The coach leads you through a dynamic warmup including some light stretching, jogging, and calisthenics to get the blood flowing. Now it is time for the strength work and today’s strength is ten minutes to find your one rep max push jerk. You haven’t maxed out your push jerk in 3 months and today you’re feeling great! When you get towards that new PR, everyone is huddled around your bar cheering you on. YOU HIT A NEW PR and EVERYONE in the class gives you a high five and says how proud of you they are.

Next up is the skill work which is bar muscle up transitions. You have been getting so close to getting your firstbar muscle up! Your coach takes a video of your muscle up while you give it 100% and get SO CLOSE. Although you didn’t achieve your first muscle up today, the coach sends you the video to watch and gives you three things to work on this month so you’ll get that skill in NO TIME! You got some direct feedback on the things you need to work on in order to get that goal of your first muscle up.

Finally, the WOD (Workout of the Day)… where all the magic happens of losing weight, getting lean and becoming fit. Today’s workout is a 15 minute AMRAP (as many rounds as possible) of a 400m run, 20 burpees, and 10 deadlifts. Seems simple on paper, but you know anything that looks easy usually ends up being the hardest. You get 4 rounds + 400 m run. You record your score in the app and notice you beat your score from two months ago! You know that you are getting fitter because you’re able to track your individual progress as well as participate in some friendly competition with your friends at the gym!



Your phone rings…it’s your significant other. They are wondering how you can still be at the gym 2.5 hours later! They are now impatiently waiting for you to arrive home to eat dinner. You hurry up and finish the last set of tricep extensions then run out the door to head home.


Workout is finished, YOU KILLED IT! You high five everyone in the class telling them great job, and that you CAN’T WAIT TO GET BACK TOMORROW! You pack up your things while saying goodbye to everyone. The coach runs over to you…”Jim you killed it today, can’t wait to see you back tomorrow… Don’t forget to write that new push Jerk PR up on the PR Board so we can brag about you on our social media page to all your friends!” You leave the gym feeling like a million bucks with a huge smile on your face. It was the best hour of your day!


CrossFit could better be compared to personal training in terms of the value, programming, coaching, and structure you get. CrossFit will cost anywhere from ($100-$160) monthly depending on how many times per week you attend vs. personal training which will cost upwards of $720 per month for three times a week ($60/45min session). That’s a $560/month savings AND you get to be with an amazing group of members that are going to push you further than what you thought you were every capable of!

Home Gym:

Maybe you’re the person that says I will just buy all my own equipment and I can workout whenever I want. Usually this is the person that has a treadmill or old equipment sitting in their basement or garage that they bought a while back and it still has never been used. Home gyms actually take a lot of dedication to use, simply because it is too convenient!  You put off the workout…. an hour goes by and you tell yourself 30 more minutes untill it becomes too late. The week has come to an end and you realize you only got one workout in and you’re not using the equipment. So now you put it up on FB marketplace for someone to come buy it for 50% off!

The price of a year membership of Unlimited CrossFit would be close to $1900. Compare that to buying VERY limited essential equipment: a rower ($900), barbell ($300), weights ($500), and a squat rack ($500) which totals to $2200. Now you have your own limited gym, but you also have a very limited choice of workouts! Now you miss the community that made you fall in love with the sport of CrossFit in the first place. After working out for some time on your own, you have resorted back to your old ways of bad technique and form because you’re no longer receiving good coaching and direct feedback. You are missing that expert eye and cues to correct form and technique flaws. Now it is going take more time to fix the bad habits when you come back to the gym than the time it took to create them on your own! I would simply ask you if you are someone considering a home gym, do you think you are in the top 10% of the world that moves so well that you do not need coaching? Even the fittest man on the earth, Matt Fraser, goes to the gym because he wants to learn and become a better athlete by working out with others at the same skill level to push him harder than he would go on his own.


I know what some of you might say. “I have been to a CrossFit Gym before and it was never like anything you have said!  Actually the Coach was mean, the members wouldn’t even say hi to me, and worst of all I got HURT cause nobody was watching me!” My simple response would be…you went to the wrong CrossFit gym where they didn’t value coaching, member experience, and community. Outside of being with your family, going to the gym should be the BEST HOUR of your day! CrossFit is unlike any other workout experience you will ever have and best of all, you will get the results you’re looking for!

During that one hour, you will relieve stress, lose weight, get leaner, and get to be a part of a community! Price is determined by value and experience. So ask yourself, would you rather pay $35-$50 a month to go to a place where you have no human interaction and never get the results that you’re looking for? OR would you rather pay a little more for RESULTS and a place where you get coached, encouraged, uplifted, become more confident and look better?

During that one hour, you will relieve stress, lose weight, getting leaner, and be apart of a community! Price is determined by value and experience, would you rather pay $35-$50 a month where you have no human interaction while never getting the results that you’re looking for. OR would you rather pay a little more for RESULTS while being coached, feeling encouraged, uplifted, confident, and look better?

Interested in trying out one of our classes and seeing what this is all about for yourself?  Reach out to us by filling out our contact form or call us at: 786-475-7273.

June 20, 2017

Lunges for a Bigger Squat

You want to increase your squat don’t you?


My recommendation… stop squatting to improve your squat…

“WHAT!?” you might say… In our “squat everyday” world you might be rolling your eyes, but before you click away let me build my case with this video…

The Lunge – The Secret Squat Builder

All intense athletes LOVE the squat… it is a right of passage… it is the main event…

In Olympic weightlifting and CrossFit the squat is vital and is often used to make us the best athlete.

However, in this squat craze many of us have missed an exercise that brings big opportunity to get even stronger. Stronger in CrossFit, stronger in Oly and stronger in the squat!

The lunge…

What can the lunge do that the squat cannot?

Two big things:

  1. Using a lunge correctly you can put more force through the legs than in the squat. If you squat 400lbs this won’t translate to 200lbs per leg… no no… you’ll be able to do around 70% of your total back squat during a lunge… that is 70% of your back squat into one leg!!
  2. It is not easy to “compensate” in a lunge so that means weaknesses will show big time between the two sides of the body. Fix those weaknesses… become stronger overall! Period!

** Mobility holding you back in the Olympic lifts? Check out Project Lifts Free Mobility for Weightlifting Schedule **

This is a guest post from Drew Dillon, head coach and co-founder of Project Lift during his lifting career as an athlete Drew placed as high as 4th at a USA Weightlifting Nationals and is a personal coach to 2012 Olympian Holley Mangold. He is also know as a weber grill snob and will routinely ask you “what is for dinner” during training. You can follow Drew on Instagram and YouTube.

This article was taken from WodNation and was posted at: https://wodnationgear.com/blogs/the-whiteboard/lunges-for-a-bigger-squat

April 24, 2017

4 Things a Mindful Eater Does

1. Eat When You’re Hungry

This seems like common sense, right? Yet many of us are guided to eat because we want to, not because we need to. There are so many reasons we eat: because someone wants to feed us; because we’re at a party and feel obligated; because Grandma made your favorite dessert; because it’s Friday night; because it’s the Superbowl; because it’s Sunday brunch; because a co-worker brought in a surprise snack from a local restaurant; because you’re bored; because you’re stressed; because you’re excited; because, because, because.

Imagine if the primary reason, the only reason, the essential reason you ate is because your body is truly hungry. You’ll feel lighter. You’ll be lighter. You’ll be more productive. You’ll be more focused on whatever is in front of you. You’ll face issues at hand. You’ll have more energy. You’ll feel more at peace.

One day, my sister sent me a text. At nearly 30 years old, she had an “aha” moment that the thousands of times she thought she was hungry, she actually just wanted to eat. She thought it was the same thing. It’s not and realizing the difference is a game-changer.

Put it Into Practice: Become more conscious of what’s driving you to eat.

Before, during or after you eat, ask yourself, “Am/was I hungry?” If you aren’t hungry but you want to eat, then it’s possible you’re dehydrated, bored or otherwise unsatisfied. Drink some water, go outside, play some good-feeling music and move your body.

An Extra Tip: Be gentle with yourself.

Change isn’t always a breeze. You’re not going to be perfect at first, so be self-compassionate. It may take you months or years to become super consistent at only eating when you’re hungry. You’re on the road to success when you can ask yourself, “Am I really hungry?” while you’re eating. You’re successful when you can ask yourself this question regularly, before the food enters your mouth.

2. Be Aware of Your Hunger Level Throughout the Day

Mindful eating allows you to find a happy medium. The idea is: Don’t starve yourself. Don’t stuff yourself.

You know exactly what it means to be working on something and suddenly think, “Omg, I’m starving!!” And you know exactly what it feels like the moment you ate too much: “Omg, I need to lie down.”

If you check in with yourself more regularly throughout the day, you can avoid getting too hungry. When you’re too hungry, you end up choosing bad food or eating too much of whatever you had.

Don’t eat until you’re full. Eat until you’re a few bites away from full. Have the courage to stop early. You should stop eating when you still feel the energy to do light tasks. You shouldn’t be so full that you feel immobile.

Tip: Here’s a tip for you, especially if you aren’t tuned into your true hunger signals. Use the Hunger Scale. It goes from 1-10. One is characterized by light-headedness, aggravation, inability to focus and being “hangry.” 10 is like post-Thanksgiving meal stuffed. Stay between a 3 and 8 all day. Every couple hours, ask yourself, “How hungry am I?” You’ll gradually begin to learn the difference between true hunger and “wanting to eat.”

3. Be More Present When You Eat

When we give 100% of our loving, genuine attention to something, we receive the greatest pleasure and we notice and appreciate small details otherwise not seen. When we give all our focus to the morsels in our mouth, we tend to slow down and savor it. Then what happens next is that we are more satisfied and more in tune with our hunger signals. When you’re more present, you’ll eat less and feel better. You’ll remember eating and be more likely to go longer between meals.

Shut the television off. Turn off the laptop and put it away. Put your phone on silent. Leave it in the other room. Put your work and to-do list in the other room. Leave the books, magazines and any other distraction in a different place.

Tip: Dare yourself to be totally present everywhere you eat for one week. Notice the significant difference it makes in your eating experience. I swear you’ll think your tastebuds grew in number! If you order a savory soup at your favorite lunch spot, sit there like a weirdo with your laptop in your bag and your phone in your pocket and slowly sip your soup like it’s the only thing in the world you have to pay attention to for 10 minutes. See what happens when your focus has nowhere else to be, except on your eating experience.

4. Pay More Attention to What You’re Actually Eating

Pay attention to what you’re eating.

Mindful eaters can tell you what they ate after a meal. You don’t need an amazing memory. You don’t need to write it down. You don’t need to be obsessive. You just need to pay attention by noticing what’s going in your mouth and you do that by being more present, which you just read about.

Pay attention to the quality of food you’re eating.

Mindful eaters know what nutritious choices are and intentionally include more of them. Mindful eaters say no to choices that aren’t nourishing and say yes to choices that are replenishing and nutritious.

Pay attention to how much you’re eating.

Mindful eaters know how much they ate because they’re noticing and intentionally choosing. Mindful eaters know from experience what’s “too much” for them and they intentionally eat a little less next time.

Tip: Test your attention for the day by writing down everything you ate right before bedtime. Don’t write it down or track it at all during the day. Simply be present and pay attention. Then see at the end of the day if you can remember what you had. If it comes easily to you, then you’re paying super close attention. If you can’t remember, then your mind was too much elsewhere while you were eating. Aim to get gradually better over time.

Published by Erin Dubich on March 21, 2017


Why You Need to Try Mindful Eating

What is Mindful Eating?

Mindful eating is the art of becoming more present and purposeful when you eat, allowing yourself to truly enjoy your food. It’s conscious decision-making that intentionally affects how, where, why and when you eat. Mindful eating allows you to more accurately gauge your true hunger and to choose foods that make you feel more alive and healthy. Mindful eating allows you to become aware of your thoughts, feelings, emotions and actions while you eat and also in between meals.

With mindful eating, you notice things you otherwise wouldn’t if you race through the eating experience, eating breakfast on your commute, gobbling down a salad at your desk, eating a protein bar while driving or shoving pasta into your mouth while you watch television.

Mindful eating, sometimes called intuitive eating, is not a new idea. It is, however, kind of radical to many Americans, as the current American culture of being overly busy, working multiple jobs, traveling and having kids makes it tempting to speed through meals.

What is Mindfulness?

General mindfulness is paying deliberate attention non-judgmentally, in the present moment, to your inner world and the physical environment outside of you. Mindfulness is being aware of your thoughts, emotions and bodily sensations in the present moment. It allows you to feel balance and self-acceptance and like you have your power back.

Benefits of Mindful Eating

1. Mindful eating allows you to acknowledge and understand your body’s responses to food.

When you pay attention to how your body feels as you’re eating, it’s easier to know which foods help you feel healthier, more energetic and in a better mood. Some people feel better with a vegan diet. Some people feel better eating low-carb. Some people feel better eating meat and others feel fantastic with plant-based protein.

Rather than following the latest diet trends and research, you can use mindful eating to find the right foods and/or diet for you at any time in your life.

2. Mindful eating allows you to know if you’re really hungry.

We eat for many reasons. Sometimes, we just want to eat regardless of real hunger. Boredom, distraction, someone else eating, emotional eating and stress eating — these are all other reasons. Mindful eating allows you to pause before you eat. You’ll be able to pinpoint what’s making you want to eat. Then you can decide if you’re truly hungry.

3. Mindful eating prevents overeating.

Not every time, but most times. Remember that mindful eating allows you to become hyper-aware of how hungry you really are and how full you really are. That pays off. Knowing when to stop eating can take you from “lethargic and stuffed” to “I feel good enough to still move around.”

If you become mindful at most meals, you can prevent those last few bites from going down. Those last few bites add up to hundreds or thousands of calories every week.

4. Mindful eating allows you to truly enjoy and appreciate your food.

Find more pleasure in your food experience. Do you have any idea what a lovely indulgence it is to regularly sit at a clean table with your plate of food and nothing else? When you split your attention, you split your pleasure. When you’re totally present at a meal, you’ll feel more satisfied and less likely to want something else to eat 45 minutes later.

5. Mindful eating allows you to let go of the diet mentality and create a healthier relationship with food, eating and your body.

Mindful eating is a key component to heal your relationship with food and your body. When you’re able to intentionally choose nutrient-rich foods, feel non-judgmental about it, eat something that tastes good and healthy and find pleasure in the entire experience, then you are creating the inner peace, power and balance that you really crave.

Make sure to read the next articles in the mindful eating series. You can overcome any challengesand become successful at mindful eating. Remember, only you are responsible for your wellness. It’s totally possible to create a healthy relationship with your body, food and eating, from wherever you are right now.

Originally Published by Erin Dubich on March 6, 2017


Getting Over The Suck – 5 Keys To Improving Running Mechanics

Photocredit: brwod

Who likes running? Maybe runners like running? I don’t know of too many people personally. In most sports, running is “conditioning” or a form of punishment for messing up in practice. But imagine if you could make it easier? It probably wouldn’t suck as much.

For many of us, including me, running can be a chore because we were expanding way too much energy as we run in large part due to improper running mechanics. Coincidentally, a lot of runners do to.

So what can we do? Use gravity and let ourselves fall forward; sounds simple enough but a lot more difficult to execute in reality. Enter Ryan Speed of IronWill to help us take the suck out of running. The veteran and high level coach of endurance training teaches us the Pose Method and lets us in on several quick tips on how we can quickly improve our running efficiency without the need to use external force. Here are the key points or jump directly to the quick video below.

Most important concepts when learning to run efficiently:

  1. Body Position – staying neutral, shoulders relaxed, arms at 90 degree angle, hips underneath you, soft knees
  2. Learn forward – let yourself fall and push your hips forward
  3. Stand tall – tuck your butt up & keep your shoulders up
  4. Pull your feet – pick your feet of the ground as quickly as possible
  5. Patience – fixing years of ingrained movement patterns will take a while

For full details on the Pose Method, endurance training, and how to incorporate endurance training as part of your CrossFit, Olympic Weightlifting, or Strength Training watch or listen to the full Uncharted Performance interview with Ryan:

This is my no means a quick fix that’ll have you sprinting like Usain Bolt tomorrow. Like developing any skill, it will take time and diligent practice on your part. However, with due time, by applying the cues on a consistent basis, running will no longer suck. You might even enjoy it.

Pawel Wencel is CrossFit Level 1 certified and the Co-Creator Of Uncharted Performance, a website and podcast dedicated to pushing the boundaries of performance inside and outside the gym. For more of Uncharted Performance check out www.unchartedperformance.com, YouTube and iTunes. Follow them onFacebook,Instagramand Twitter.

This article was originally posted on WodNation at: https://wodnationgear.com/blogs/the-whiteboard/getting-over-the-suck-5-keys-to-improving-running-mechanics

How to Eat Healthy While Traveling

Come Fly With Me

In the past years, regulations about bringing food on the plane have become very strict. Mainly if you’re traveling abroad, make sure you check the local rules. This avoids having your delicious goodies taken away from you before you even get on your flight.

While it has been creating opportunities for healthy food restaurants to offer cleaner meals (after you’ve passed security controls), it isn’t a rule of thumb everywhere yet. The same goes for vending machines with alternatives to chocolate bars and soda.

Yes, you can find more fruit salad and juices but unless you’re sure they’re available at the airport you’re traveling from, don’t count on it. Besides, it’s always better to be safe than sorry. Packing your travel snacks with you is still the wisest choice.

In general, small portions of dry and non-perishable food are accepted on board. Take a couple of protein bars, a bag of nuts and a portion of a protein powder like PR3 with you.

Another option for longer flights is opting for healthier menus when booking your ticket. Various airlines offer vegetarian or vegan menus these days. They are generally lighter and healthier meals compared to the standard ones. And you can surely save some calories by having a portion of fruit instead of a sugary dessert.

On the Road Again

It’s not like you won’t a find a single place to eat when you travel by car. The question, though, is: Will you find healthy food when hunger hits you?

Most people are still more interested in quick fixes than in quality meals when on the road. As the main goal is arriving at the destination as fast as possible, having a picnic isn’t always an option. A drive-through restaurant feels like a much better choice. But whether or not you have lots of time to spare, you can still keep your meals in check when traveling by car.

In addition to our flight suggestions, you can also bring a lunch box or a cooler with you to store cold snacks. Some options you can carry with you are:

  • Greek yogurt
  • Homemade salad
  • Fruit
  • Homemade sandwiches
  • Grilled chicken

To make sure you get all your ingredients bring your greens with you too. You can add G3 to any meal to keep your vitamins in check, for example.

Also for the Little Ones

You don’t have to be an athlete or follow a specific diet to follow a healthy diet. Nutrition is important to everyone, old and young. That’s why when traveling with kids, you should make sure you have healthy travel snacks for them as well.

It’s true that children love sweets, soda and other sugary goods but you know they aren’t the best alternatives for them. While leading by example is the best way to guide the little ones, it’s also important to give them the tools to do it right. When traveling with kids, bring for them:

  • Sliced fruit
  • Dry cereal
  • Whole grain crackers
  • Fresh veggies
  • Half sandwiches

Depending on their preference, you can also have the same snacks as yours. Try to make them “cuter” by cutting smaller slices or adding some color just for fun. Small tomatoes and carrots are ideal for that!

Trips can be tiring for children of all ages. It can be refreshing for them if their meals have an extra touch.

Fun and Business

Carrying healthy travel snacks with you is also great when you are away for business. The same tips can be used when traveling abroad for an important meeting or when hitting the road for a convention in a neighbor state.

If your schedule is tight, a protein shake can save the day. For extra focus and energy have C3 on hand, as well.

As you can see, it’s possible to stay healthy when traveling no matter the situation. The next time you go on a trip, don’t leave home without your travel snacks.

Don’t forget to get your sweat on when you travel!


Originally published by Megan Grant on April 18, 2017